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Comparison of Microwave Vacuum-, Freeze- and Hot-Air Drying by Energy Efficiency and Aroma Composition of Dried Hop (Humulus lupulus)

Sándor Ferenczi, Helga Molnár, Nóra Adányi, and Zsuzsanna Cserhalmi
NARIC Food Science Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary
Abstract—In this study, 3 different drying methods (hot-air drying, freeze drying, microwave vacuum drying) were compared by aroma composition of dried hops and the required electrical energy for each technology. From the total volatile fraction, 3 main compounds were detected: ß-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and ß-caryophyllene. According to the results, the 3 drying technologies did not cause significant change in aroma compound composition in dried hop. ß-myrcene was preserved in the largest amount by freeze drying, followed by microwave vacuum drying and hot-air drying, respectively. Freeze drying had by far the highest energy consumption, followed by microwave vacuum drying. Hot-air drying used the less energy, which is 5.96% of freeze drying. Microwave vacuum drying could be a promising alternative to widely used hot-air drying for hop, because of better aroma retention and slightly higher required electric energy.
 
Index Terms—drying, microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying, hot-air drying, hop drying

Cite: Sándor Ferenczi, Helga Molnár, Nóra Adányi, and Zsuzsanna Cserhalmi, "Comparison of Microwave Vacuum-, Freeze- and Hot-Air Drying by Energy Efficiency and Aroma Composition of Dried Hop (Humulus lupulus)," International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 136-139, June 2018. doi: 10.18178/ijfe.4.2.136-139
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