1. How to submit my research paper? What’s the process of publication of my paper?
The journal receives submitted manuscripts via email only. Please submit your research paper in .doc or .pdf format to the submission email: ijfe@ejournal.net.
You’ll be given a paper number if your submission is successful. Your paper then will undergo peer review process
2. Can I submit an abstract?
The journal publishes full research papers. So only full paper submission should be considered for possible publication. Papers with insufficient content may be rejected as well, make sure your paper is sufficient enough to be published...[Read More]

Chemical and Genetic Markers for Identification of Honey Origin from Its Bee Speciation

Nyuk L. Chin and Siok P. Kek
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract—The need for accurate and reliable methods for identification of honey origin is important for reducing honey fraud. This study has identified suitable chemical and genetic markers to determine the origin of honey from its bee source of Apis honey bees or Trigona stingless bee. In the chemical analysis, moisture, fructose, glucose, sucrose, free acidity, and colour intensity were chemical markers identified for differentiating honey by its bee origin. The use of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) on honey composition have successfully classified honey into groups of Apis and Trigona. In the DNA-based method, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a genetic marker to identify honey origin by its bee species accurately from the clear groupings and distinct clusters in phylogenetic trees. The genetic marker of COI gene is accurate and reliable for this identification as it has direct matching to its reference bee species. Incorporating both chemical and genetic markers affirm the identity of honey. 
Index Terms—honey, entomological origin, chemical composition, pattern recognition, DNA marker, phylogenetic analysis

Cite: Nyuk L. Chin and Siok P. Kek, "Chemical and Genetic Markers for Identification of Honey Origin from Its Bee Speciation," International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 304-307, December 2018. doi: 10.18178/ijfe.4.4.304-307
Copyright © 2017-2019 International Journal of Food Engineering, All Rights Reserved
E-mail: ijfe@ejournal.net