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Quality Characteristics of Maize Flours and Breads

Paula M. R. Correia 1, Andreia M. Soares 2, and Carla Brites 3
1. Department of Food Industry, CI&DETS/ESAV, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal
2. Department of Food Industry, Agrarian School of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal
3. Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, Oeiras, Portugal
Abstract—In this work the effect of different maize flours used for bread production was evaluated, considering their quality characteristics. Traditional maize breads (broas) were produced using yellow maize and white maize, both commercial flours and produced by local maize landraces. Flours were chemical and rheological characterized. Broas were evaluated considering the moisture, water activity (aw), hardness, color and sensorial characteristics. Moisture, aw and amylose content of flours presented similar values, with yellow flours presenting the high value of ð-tocopherol (0.49 µg/g). Commercial maize flours presented high temperature and peak viscosity, with less gel stability after cooling. At the end of pasting process, the regional maize flours produced firm, stable and cuttable gels. The maize breads presented low moisture (8.4-10.2%), being the white commercial broa the one with higher aw (0.56). The b* coordinate for color was higher in the yellow broas. The white maize breads were harder, and the hardness increased with storage time for all samples. The sensorial appreciation showed similar cohesiveness for all broas, but for the other evaluated parameters there were differences between them, being the most appreciated bread the one made with the yellow regional maize landrace flour.
 
Index Terms—maize flour, bread, chemical characteristics, color, texture, sensorial properties

Cite: Paula M. R. Correia, Andreia M. Soares, and Carla Brites, "Quality Characteristics of Maize Flours and Breads," International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 113-118, December 2016. doi: 10.18178/ijfe.2.2.113-118
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